Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction: The Aboriginal peoples of Canada have taken on great suffering from the colonization of the settlers of Canada. However, the effect of colonization has not disappeared from the Canadian society. Indigenous Residential Schools (IRS) played a major role in the cultural loss or genocide of the Aboriginals. Presently, IRS litigation is trying to reveal the effects of the IRS and how the justice system needs to acknowledge that cultural genocide was a consequence of IRS. This socio-legal issue is the focus of the article,Ã¢â¬ Troubling the Path to Decolonization: Indian Residential School Case Law, Genocide, and Settler Illegitimacy,Ã¢â¬ written by Leslie Thielen-Wilson. AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Argument: The author argues that the IndianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This idea is drawn from the decision made in Haida Nation v Canada, and how the IRS litigation is an avenue to uphold the settlerÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty currently. In Part II, the author looks at the Blackwater v Plint case, and how it only reveal some of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongdoings in the eyes of law, and what can be considered as being vicariously responsible. This case is looked upon as a business partnership between the Canadian government and the Church, and what qualifies them to be vicariously responsible and what is considered an actionable tort. The article discusses how the settlerÃ¢â¬â¢s collective vision and claim of sovereignty are not legitimate, but the Canadian government wants to withstand any legal implications solely because it is believed that settlers have superiority and can dehumanize Indigenous people. Evidence: In support of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main claims, the article presents supporting evidence in the text with the usage of the court decisions from Blackwater v Plint. The author supported their thesis by analyzing each phase of the case in court and the decisions that went along with it. It was seen in phase 1, that Justice Brenner 1998 phase-one decision is considered a landmark decision in that it holds both Canada and the United Church vicariously responsible for the sexual assaults committed by Plint. ( Thielen-Wilson, 187). The author interprets this, is that this brings forth the racial ontology of propertyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"no-faultÃ¢â¬ responsibility is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Jewish and Armenian Holocausts Ã¢â¬Å"More than 70 years after the Holocaust, the horrors of Rwanda, Srebrenica, and Darfur are sobering reminders that preventing future genocides and mass atrocities remains an enormous challengeÃ¢â¬ (Obama P 3). In the novel Forgotten Fire, Vahan Kenderian shares his experiences through the Armenian War and Genocide, where his family and most of his people were killed. In the book, The Diary of Anne Frank, Anne explains her thoughts and feelings, during some of her teen years, and her experiences through World War Two and the Holocaust. Through the experiences of Anne Frank and Vahan Kenderian, they experience many things that are alike yet different from each other. In 1915, the Ottoman Government decided onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Anne Frank also had to survive through harsh times like Vahan. Anne Frank was lived in a home where she and her family did not have to worry about problems others did. Once Adolf Hitler became a Dictator and spreaded out his beliefs on the th e Jewish race, Anne and her family became scared. She and her family went into hiding in a small little space that was located where AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s father worked. Ã¢â¬Å"Now our Secret Annex has truly become secret. Because so many houses are being searched for hidden bicycles, Mr. Kugler thought it would be better to have a bookcase built in front of the entrance to our hiding placeÃ¢â¬ (Frank). Mr. Krugler had made a secret room that was located behind a bookcase, where they all could hide. This hiding spot had kept Anne and the others hidden from Nazi soldiers for about two years, but later they were caught and sent to concentration camps. Vahan Kenderian and Anne Frank had very similar upbrings, like having a nice homes, and a plentiful amount of food. Once the Armenian War started for Vahan, and WWII for Anne, they both had everything taken away from including their homes, families, and friends. One difference between Vahan and Anne, is that they used different tactics to survive the murder of their people. Vahan used a different tactic to survive the Armenian War and Genocide, compared to Anne Frank during World War Two. Vahan had spent almost the entire time during his the Armenian Genocide running andShow MoreRelatedAnne Frank And The Holocaust1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Anne Frank, a Jewish child at the time, faced constant persecution from the Nazis and had personal struggles similar to those of other Jewish children. This was an effect of World War Two since Adolf Hitler believed that the German race was superior, so during his world domination, his immoral notion created devastation among Jews. His wave of dictatorship affected each and every family, and although many of them faced death, mostly all faced sorrow. This world-wide crisis reveals the parallelRead MoreAnne Frank And The Holocaust1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Anne Frank is a Jewish girl who has to go into hiding during World War Two to escape from the Nazis Ã¢â¬ ¦ After more than two years in hiding they are discovered and deported to concentration camps Ã¢â¬ ¦ After her death Anne becomes world famous because of the diary she wrote while in hidingÃ¢â¬ (annefrank.org). Anne Frank was a young girl who had a bright future, but it was taken away from her by the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢ s and Holocaust. Before the Holocaust, Anne Frank was just the typical young girl. During the HolocaustRead MoreThe Holocaust Haunted Irene Gut and Anne Frank794 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The holocaust had been two pale, waxy fingers from a deathly hand pinching out lights all over Europe. It affected everyone, from young to old, short or tall. It had haunted two girls by the name of Irene Gut and Anne Frank, just because they did not have the luck to be born Ã¢â¬Å"the supreme raceÃ¢â¬ that Hitler thought was most admirable. In The Diary of Anne Frank a young girl named Anne Frank had been forced to hide in the rooftop room in the fathers work building. Anne had suffered throughRead MoreBig Simbol of the Holocaust: The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank777 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnne FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s diary is known all over the world. She was in hiding for 2 years, and she wrote in her diary. Writing was one of her hobbies. There is more than just one of Anne FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s writings. It is very impressive of being such a big symbol about the holocaust, writing about your life in hiding. But there are plenty of other pieces of work she has done. She has written many short stories, letters and poems of her own; during the time she was in hiding, and before that. Anne Frank has always lovedRead MoreSurviving the Holocaust: Comparison and Contrast of Anne Frank and Gerta Klein761 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswinter. Gerta survived because of her family and friends. Anne Frank survived because she believed that Ã¢â¬Å"Despite all the evil going on in the world I still believe that all people are good at heart.Ã¢â¬ ~ Anne Frank The Franks were a Jewish family who were living during the Holocaust. They went into hiding because Margot had gotten a letter and she was going to be taken away to a concentration camp and forced into labor. The franks along with the VannDanns, Mrs. VannDann, Mr. VannDann, PeterRead MoreReading The Diary Of Anne Frank : An Essay Depth Resource For Learning About The Holocaust770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTeaching the Holocaust to high school students can be tricky at times. Choosing the right sources, whether primary or secondary, can be a daunting task. Students may connect to certain sources on an individual level, but other sources may make it hard to understand the Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ of the Holocaust. Susan MorgerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Teaching the Diary of Anne Frank: An In-depth Resource for Learning about the Holocaust through the Writings of Anne Frank, offers high school teachers a very useful resource for teachingRead MoreComparison between Maus Anne Frank Essay1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswere a holocaust survivor and asked to describe your catastrophic experience? What part of the event would you begin with, the struggle, the death of innocent Jews, or the cruel witnessed? When survivors are questioned about their experience they shiver from head to toe, recalling what they have been through. Therefore, they use substitutes such as books and diaries to expose these catastrophic events internationally. Books such as Maus, A survivorÃ¢â¬â¢s tale by Art Spiegelman, and Anne Frank by AnnRead MoreThe Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank: The Diary That Changed the Way We See History1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Anne Frank: The diary that changed the way we see history The Diary of Anne Frank, also published under the simple name The Diary of a Young Girl, is the first book on the Holocaust many young people read. Told in the straightforward, first-person voice of a young adolescent witnessing the horrors of the Nazi occupation as it unfolded before her eyes, it enabled readers of all ages and religious persuasions to become eyewitnesses to history. Reading her diary is a convenient way, a hook, to introduceRead MoreA Diary Every Day By Anne Frank1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSix million innocent, loving, caring Jewish people were ruthlessly murdered during the Holocaust, yet there was little insight into exactly how these people were treated before their deaths. However, one girl, by the name of Anne Frank, wrote in her diary every day, unaware that her diary entries would solve this issue. She was born in the large German town of Frankfurt. Anne was an ordinary child, with dreams for her future, and friends and family who supported and loved her, u naware that she wouldRead MoreThe Diary Of Anne Frank Essay832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHolocaust is historical event that people must remember. As a student of the University of California Irvine and a member of the ASUCI Cultural Committee, it is one of my obligation to determine the cultural event that is most appropriate for Holocaust Remembrance Day this coming spring. I think that the play of Francis Goodrich and Albert Hackett s The Diary of Anne Frank is the most appropriate for it and should be produced at UCI for two strong reasons. The play of the Diary of Anne Frank
Before there was television, children had options of playing outside, playing board games, or doing simple activities like reading or drawing. Now that TV exists to a high extremity, it has become apparent that nowadays these children shows have surpassed physical and intellectual activities and have now become a way of life for children. We now see children wearing clothing, playing video games, playing with toys, and watching movies featuring famous characters that started off as mere creations that starred on half-hour to one hour long programs. We will write a custom essay sample on Influence of Television Programs on Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whether it is a positive or negative happening, children programming is becoming a global phenomenon affecting many kids around the world. The most relevant questions posed are how these shows affect children inside and outside of the US, and is this controversial issue affecting these children for the better or for the worse. It is clear that children within the United States have become indulged with computers, video games, and, most evidently, television. Nickelodeon in particular has been coming out with shows made just for younger children over the last decade. An example of this would be Ã¢â¬Å"Dora the Explorer. Ã¢â¬ As Dora celebrates her 10th year on air, ratings and sales show that this Latina is here to stay. In an article from Dayton Daily News in Dayton, Ohio, Sigal Ratner-Arias addresses this bilingual girlÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into the hearts of millions of children. Today, Dora is seen in 151 different markets and has been translated to 30 different languages. She appears in countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Ireland and teaches Spanish. However, while this busy girl teaches Spanish to English-speaking countries, she also teaches English to Hispanic countries (Ratner-Arias n. pag). Ã¢â¬Å"According to Nickelodeon, Ã¢â¬ËDoraÃ¢â¬â¢ has generated over $11 billion in worldwide sales since 2002 having sold 65 million units of Fisher Price Dora the Explorer toys, 50 million books and over 20 million DVDs worldwide,Ã¢â¬ writes Ratner-Arias (Ratner-Arias n. pag). For originally being created as a forest animal, Ã¢â¬Å"Dora the ExplorerÃ¢â¬ has become a global idol to young children (Ratner-Arias n. pag). Another Nickelodeon star causing global waves is the sponge that lives in a pineapple under the sea, Ã¢â¬Å"Spongebob Squarepants. Ã¢â¬ Martha Worboy, writer for The Gazette in Montreal, writes about the impact Spongebob Squarepants has had on children around the world. Since this show premiered in July of 1999, Spongebob has advanced himself to be seen in 171 markets and translated into 25 languages (Worboy n. pag). Along with many other shows, Spongebob has been seen in video games, movies, clothing, food, and seen in stores such as Wal-Mart, Best Buy, KohlÃ¢â¬â¢s, and Radio Shack (Worboy n. pag). Spongebob has sparked imagination amongst children around the world and continues to grow in popularity of all ages. Two other shows that have shown significant rise around the world are Ã¢â¬Å"Sesame StreetÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"BlueÃ¢â¬â¢s Clues. Ã¢â¬ According to an article from Melbourne, AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s newspaper, The Age, Ã¢â¬Å"BlueÃ¢â¬â¢s CluesÃ¢â¬ has been seen in 60 different countries and has been translated into 15 different languages (Dunn n. pag). Kids have the ability to interact with a guy named Joe and his cute, blue puppy, Blue. Along with Joe, children work to solve a mystery that Blue has laid out for them. With this show, children have the ability to be entertained through interaction with an animated puppy that also stimulates their brain. Though Ã¢â¬Å"Sesame StreetÃ¢â¬ has been seen for many years and is highly known, this show still continues to branch out more and more. This Day, a newspaper out of Nigeria stated that later this year, Ã¢â¬Å"Sesame StreetÃ¢â¬ will be introduced as Ã¢â¬Å"Sesame SquareÃ¢â¬ in Nigeria; however, with it comes a unique twist to the characters (Ã¢â¬Å"This DayÃ¢â¬ n. pag). This show will be hosted by two Muppet characters. One is named Kami, a golden fur, girl Muppet who is HIV positive, and Zobi, a furry blue, boy Muppet (Ã¢â¬Å"This DayÃ¢â¬ n. pag). This show has drawn quite the anticipation in Nigeria and even allowed the Nigerian people to vote on a name for the blue furry Muppet (Ã¢â¬Å"This DayÃ¢â¬ n. pag). With the ongoing advancement of technology and improvement of shows made for children, it can only be wondered how long until the next animated phenomenon is created. Although these television shows have obviously been globalized, they also lead to the question of if the impact they have had on children can truly be een as constructive or harmful. Many people have questioned whether or not children shows are in fact engaging the minds of young kids and teaching them various ways to look at life or, in contrast, poisoning their minds and encouraging them into bad choices and presenting an overall negative effect on their life outside of watching the television. In a Boston periodical, The Jewish Advocate, Lauren Kramer views a theory brought by Dr. Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, director for the infant-language laboratory at Temple University. Pasek develops the idea of the Ã¢â¬Å"Six CÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ which creates a recipe for success in young children. These Ã¢â¬Å"Six CÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ are: collaboration with others, communication, content, creative, and confidence (Kramer n. pag). Pasek goes on to discuss that none of these can be seen or adapted by watching television. She also states that while content may be seen while watching TV it is really just a quick fix and will not benefit children in the long run (Kramer n. pag). Pasek stresses, Ã¢â¬Å"We know young kids are better when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re actively rather than passively engaged, and TV is passive,Ã¢â¬ (Kramer n. pag). In this article, Pasek also determines that children under three years of age in no way benefit from television; even if it is Ã¢â¬Å"Baby Einstein,Ã¢â¬ (Kramer n. pag). Studies have also been conducted trying to determine whether or not watching television to great amounts is affecting the eating habits and psyche of young children. A study published by US Journal Pediatrics found that more psychological difficulties dealing with peers, emotional issues, and hyperactivity are likely to develop with children who spend numerous hours daily in front of television or playing video games (Yahoo! News n. pag). Researchers studied 1,013 children ages 10 to 11 and had them complete a 25-point questionnaire, a self-report about daily hours watching television or playing games, and measured their physical activity using an accelerometer in which the kids wore around their waist for seven days (Yahoo! News n. pag). It was concluded that children spending two or more hours a day were likely to score higher on the questionnaire which indicated, Ã¢â¬Å"They had more psychological difficulties than kids who did not spend a lot of time in front of a screen,Ã¢â¬ (Yahoo! News n. pag). Even if children are physically active but still spend multiple hours watching television or playing video games, they are still at risk for psychological difficulties. Researchers stress the importance of parents regulating how much these activities are being done to ensure their kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ well being (Yahoo! News n. pag). A periodical appearing in Medical Post by Amber Lepage-Monette discusses Sonia Miller, a Harvard Medical Student, who conducted a study in 2007 which was a, Ã¢â¬Å"cross sectional analysis of children taking part in Project Viva, which followed more than 2,000 pregnant women and their offspring. Data on diet and TV time were gathered for 1,203 three-year-old children,Ã¢â¬ (Monette n. pag). After this study was completed, Miller found that for every extra hour of TV the average child viewed per day, they were in taking 0. 06 extra servings of sugar sweetened beverages per day, 0. 32 additional servings of fast food per week, and an additional 48. 7 calories a day. This research also revealed that these children were consuming 0. 18 fewer fruit and vegetable daily servings along with 0. 44 fewer grams of fiber, and 24. fewer milligrams of calcium per day (Monette n. pag). Miller notes, Ã¢â¬Å"Previous studies revealed the association between obesity and TV viewing is not due to time spent watching TV replacing time spent being physically active,Ã¢â¬ (Monette n. pag). From this it can be seen that parents should be thinking twice before placing their kids in front of the TV for long periods of time. On the counterpoint, while there is a strong consensus that television ha s a negative impact on children, some say it is very much so educational and beneficial. Amanda Dunn, writer for The Age newspaper in Australia, views opinions of various people about the effect of television on children. Mark Mitchell, star of an Australian show Ã¢â¬Å"Round the Twist,Ã¢â¬ states that while he enjoys engaging children in his show, he worries that television has and will continue to become a babysitter for kids (Dunn n. pag). Lee Burton, senior lecturer in media education at RMIT University Australia, strongly disagrees and, Ã¢â¬Å"thinks the babysitter argument is something of a myth, and believes that television is a fine educator and entertainer of children as long as it is regulated,Ã¢â¬ (Dunn n. ag). Even those that find television valuable for children agree that there needs to be some sort of limitation on how much kids are watching. After doing this research and viewing different perspectives, I find myself definite on what I believe is correct for children. I thoroughly believe that television is a necessity for children. It enforces creativity and imagination and further emphasizes the importance of creating an individual within oneself. The various shows geared towards children do an exceptional job at giving them the break from the daily grind that I believe s needed even at a young age. Many shows that are made more for the audience of pre-teens to teenagers also do more than entertain these viewers but also relates to their lives by incorporating real life situations. For example, a show I have always been fond of is Ã¢â¬Å"DegrassiÃ¢â¬ which is a show filmed in Canada. This show follows teenagers that attend Degrassi Community High School and follows their triumphs, as well as their losses. Degrassi is ideal for teenagers because it allows them to relate to the situations presented as well as relate it to their own lives and where there is comparison. In this show viewers have witnessed relationships, the reality of STDs, a school shooting, a murder, a suicide, and a school lockdown. It is because of me watching this show that I believe television can educate and enlighten as well as entertain. Every age group has a show that does both of these things for them. I also believe that there needs to be limitations on how often kids watch TV. Studies I have mentioned before show that there are many disadvantages and losses the children will endure if they continue to watch as much television as they have been allotted thus far. People continue to say that they are worried for our generation in the future. Well now there is a simple thing that can be done to assist in shaping a better generation; it just needs to be embraced. Children do not need to be at a computer, playing a video game, or watching TV for more than an hour and a half daily. More than this limit will lead to more and more regression of the generation. Television shows have become a global phenomenon to children of all ages. Clothing, food, games, toys, and many more can be seen surrounding children due to the popularity of these shows. As good as it may seem to be able to sit back and watch various shows at night, it has been proven to be bad for the development of children and worsen their health and nutritional stability. Whether one believes TV is a positive or negative occurrence, it cannot be denied that there need to be limitations on how much television children are engaged in daily in order to support children accomplishing their optimal well being. How to cite Influence of Television Programs on Children, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Introduction By virtue of the Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy entries, both justice and social equity can be explained in relation to distributive justice and justice as a virtue. Justice can be defined as the concept of the rightness of morals. These morals are based on inter alia law, equity, ethics or natural law backed by sanctions in case of breach. On the other hand, social equity refers to the just and fair distribution of resources in a given society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Justice and Social Equity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Concept of justice and Social Equity The concept of distributive justice is governed by normative principles that have been designed for purposes of guiding the allocation, as well as benefits and detriments of economic activity. The concept of distributive justice tends to observe strict egalitarianism that calls for the allocation of material goods in equal a mounts to all. For example, where a resource of public utility like electricity is in question, then all parts of the society should benefit from this resource as opposed to it being enjoyed by only a portion of members of the society. Furthermore, distributive justice also maintains the Ã¢â¬Ëdifferent principleÃ¢â¬â¢ that permits allocation in cases where it is contrary to strict equality, but its effect is not detrimental. This means that its effect must be in such a way that the least advantage in the society is in better condition materially than under the strict equality (Lamont 2007). Justice as a virtue is further reflected in the Stanford Encyclopedia (Lamont 2007). It refers to individualÃ¢â¬â¢s traits that could be good or bad. The phrase is evidently ambiguous and may thus vary depending on individuals or social applications. Historically, both Aristotle and PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of justice as a virtue proved that they were rationalists. The two scholars employ ed the role of reason in their perception of what was just and fair. A good example is the fact that, it is considered unjust when one refuses to pay a debt or steals. Ethical thinkers have thus supported the fact that, justice is not based on mere sentiments. Instead, they advocate for a more intellectual and constructive rational in determining what is just. More scholars have also presented their distinct opinions about justice as a virtue using both virtual and non-virtual approaches.Advertising Looking for essay on public administration? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threats to Justice and Social Equity In his article, Frederickson reveals the existing connection between social equity and justice (2008). Additionally, he also outlays the challenges that befall social equity in both society and public administration. The author talks about Philip J. Rutledge in his leadership implemented in public administration and soci al equity (Frederickson 2008). Evidently, social equity can be influenced by the changing attitudes existing towards fairness and governmental programs that are aimed at bringing equality. The challenges that affect social justice are said to be based on racial and gender prejudices, as opposed to existing economic differences. Ethnicity and race therefore puts the Ã¢â¬Ëpoverty faceÃ¢â¬â¢ on and also gives it an identity. A good example in where it affects the Hispanic, African American, Indians and also native Americans who, according to the article, were only 3 percent of enrolled students in the University of California (Fredericks 2008). In the book Ã¢â¬Å"The State of social equity in America Public AdministrationÃ¢â¬ , more is revealed about threats that are faced by social justice and equity. Over the years, public administration is said to have led the way when it comes to social equity. Historically, this concept of social equality in public administration was emphasi zed on matters concerning service delivery, gender and race in employment as well as democratic participation. The situation has since then improved but still ought to be addressed because equity is today defined in a much broader way (Frederickson 2010). Conclusion In a nutshell, the concept of justice and social equity is inevitable when it comes to public administration and thus of high importance. Despite the fact that justice and social equity has improved over the years, there still exist certain threats that act as a stumbling block as discussed above. References Fredrickson, H. (2008).Social Equity in the Twenty-First Century: An Essay in Memory of Philip J. Rutledge. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1): 1-8.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Justice and Social Equity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fredrickson, H. (2010).Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments and Applicatio ns. New York: M.E Sharpe. Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive Justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. This essay on Justice and Social Equity was written and submitted by user Kason W. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The History Behind Cobell Vs. Salazar Surviving multiple presidential administrations since its inception in 1996, the Cobell case has been known variously as Cobell v. Babbit, Cobell v. Norton, Cobell v. Kempthorne and its current name, Cobell v. Salazar (all defendants being Secretaries of the Interior under which the Bureau of Indian affairs is organized). With upwards of 500,000 plaintiffs, it has been called the largest class-action lawsuit against the United States in U.S. history. The suit is the result of over 100 years of abusive federal Indian policy and gross negligence in the management of Indian trust lands. Overview Eloise Cobell, a Blackfoot Indian from Montana and banker by profession, filed the lawsuit on behalf of hundreds of thousands of individual Indians in 1996 after finding many discrepancies in the management of funds for lands held in trust by the United States in her job as treasurer for the Blackfoot tribe. According to U.S. law, Indian lands are technically not owned by tribes or individual Indians themselves but are held in trust by the U.S. government. Under U.S. management, Indian trust lands Indian reservations are often leased to non-Indian individuals or companies for resource extraction or other uses. The revenue generated from the leases is to be paid to the tribes and individual Indian land owners. The United States has a fiduciary responsibility to manage the lands to the best benefit of tribes and individual Indians, but as the lawsuit revealed, for over 100 years the government failed in its duties to accurately account for the income generated by the leases, let alone pay the revenues to the Indians. History of Indian Land Policy and Law The foundation of federal Indian law begins with the principles based on the doctrine of discovery, originally defined in Johnson v. MacIntosh (1823) which maintains that Indians only have a right to occupancy and not the title to their own lands. This led to the legal principle of the trust doctrine to which the United States is held on behalf of Native American tribes. In its mission to civilize and assimilate Indians into mainstream American culture, the Dawes Act of 1887 broke up the communal landholdings of tribes into individual allotments which were held in trust for a period of 25 years. After the 25-year period, a patent in fee simple would be issued, enabling an individual to sell their land if they chose to and ultimately breaking up the reservations. The goal of the assimilation policy would have resulted in all Indian trust lands in private ownership, but a new generation of lawmakers in the early 20th century reversed the assimilation policy based on the landmark Merria m Report which detailed the deleterious effects of the previous policy. Fractionation Throughout the decades as the original allottees died the allotments passed to their heirs in subsequent generations. The result has been that an allotment of 40, 60, 80, or 160 acres, which was originally owned by one person is now owned by hundreds or sometimes even thousands of people. These fractionated allotments are usually vacant parcels of land that are still managed under resource leases by the U.S. and have been rendered useless for any other purposes because they can only be developed with the approval 51% of all other owners, an unlikely scenario. Each of those people is assigned Individual Indian Money (IIM) accounts which are credited with any revenue generated by the leases (or would have been had there been appropriate accounting and crediting maintained). With hundreds of thousands of IIM accounts now in existence, accounting has become a bureaucratic nightmare and highly costly. The Settlement The Cobell case hinged in large part on whether or not an accurate accounting of the IIM accounts could be determined. After over 15 years of litigation, the defendant and the plaintiffs both agreed that an accurate accounting was not possible and in 2010 a settlement was finally reached for a total of $3.4 billion. The settlement, known as the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, was divided into three sections: $1.5 billion was created for an Accounting/Trust Administration fund (to be distributed to IIM account holders), $60 million is set aside for Indian access to higher education, and the remaining $1.9 billion sets up the Trust Land Consolidation Fund, which provides funds for tribal governments to purchase individual fractionated interests, consolidating the allotments into once again communally held land. However, the settlement has yet to be paid due to legal challenges by four Indian plaintiffs.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Scary Clown Costume Ideas for This Halloween In case you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard, scary clowns are all the rage this fall. The trend has sparked terror all across the country and internationally as people don scary clown costumes at night and head out to terrorize their neighborhood. With a costume this hot, nobody wants to be left out. So if youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning to be your own breed of scary clown this Halloween, or even tonight, here are some tips on how to do it right. There are lots of scary clown styles to choose from, from Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s It to Clownhouse to Carnival of Souls to Zombieland. Here are some top scary looks and how to get them: Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s IT The hair He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the classic Ronald McDonald Hair, instead he has frizzy red hair and a majorly receding hairline. So, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to cover up your own hairline with a swim-cap or other cap before you don the wig. The face Use white face-paint and lots of it. If you put a thin layer on, your skin tone will still shine through so make sure you pile on the white face-paint to get his look right. The nose He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have one of those perfectly red noses, instead itÃ¢â¬â¢s textured and bulbous. You can get the same effect by covering a traditional red nose with a sponge material and painting it red. The eyes Red contacts can help you imitate his menacing gaze. The teeth This clownÃ¢â¬â¢s got killer teeth. And theyÃ¢â¬â¢re yellow to boot. Look for a set of scary sharp teeth to complete your look and dirty them up with brown and yellow food coloring before going out. Clownhouse ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s more than one scary clown in this film but the lead clownÃ¢â¬â¢s look is the best. The hair Again, he has a receding hairline, but with shorter hair than the It clown. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to don that swim-cap again to cover up your hairline before putting on the wig. The face Use a base of white face-paint first. This clown has triangles above his eyes and he frames the eyes with a black line that goes from the temples and across the forehead which can be drawn in with black eyeliner or face-paint. The nose A traditional clownÃ¢â¬â¢s nose made out of rubber, not plastic, will work here. The lips His lips are filled in with a deep red color that goes outside the border of his lips, making for a creepy looking red mouth. Carnival of Souls The hair This guy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the traditional red hair. Instead, you can find a dark green wig for the hair. Top it off with his signature purple top-hat. The face Begin with a base of white face-paint. Then draw in exaggerated arched eyebrows with black eyeliner or face-paint. For his creepy eye look, use red face-paint all around the eyes. His mouth has a downturned smile, so use red face-paint or lipstick to fill in and around the lips. Zombieland The hair This clown is also a zombie and has two green tufts of hair growing out of either side and is bald in the middle. The face YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a lot of fun with this one. His zombie look has rotten flesh around the chin and deep unhealed scars across his temples and cheeks. Use a base of grey-ish white face-paint for his undead look. Black face-paint around the eyes will create a sunken eyeball look. Add a turned up red clownÃ¢â¬â¢s smile around the mouth with lipstick or face-paint. His bulbous red nose is shiny plastic. The accessory You simply canÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore this guyÃ¢â¬â¢s bowtie. The enormous blue and white polka-dot tie would make this scary clown outfit complete. Choose your favorite scary clown look to scare your neighbors tonight or to have the most popular Halloween costume of the season. If you dont like clowns, you should check out other Halloween costume ideas to create the scariest costume for the party! Also, you can be even scarier after applying Halloween makeup! image credit: flickr.com
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Human genetic enhancement - Essay Example Gene insertion may be intended to affect a single individual through somatic cell modification, or it may target the Gametes, in which case the resulting effect could be passed on to generations. The concept of genetic enhancement is not new if one considers the use of genetically modified drug products such as Human Growth Hormone (HGH), which before 1985 could only be obtained in limited quantities from cadaveric pituitary glands but now can be produced using recombinant DNA technology (Stock, 2003). When its supply was limited HGH could only be prescribed to children with short stature caused by classical growth hormone deficiency however with the advent of recombinant DNA manufacturing some physicians are recommending use of HGH for nonhormone deficient children who are below normal height. After reports were heard of a pregnancy achieved through Human cloning program a bill was set up by the Senate that would outlaw all forms of cloning including biometric research aimed at crea ting embryonic stem cells that would not be rejected when transplanted, simply known as therapeutic cloning, and the bill had the support of then president George W. Bush. Any embryonic researcher was threatened with extreme criminal penalties (10 years in jail). An executive order on March 9, 2009 with its main aim of removing barriers to responsible scientific research involving human stem cell was introduced and it highlighted the advances over the past decade in the research field was very promising and would support it with federal funds. The order was to remove all forms of limitations on scientific inquiry expand NIH support on human stem cell research and enhance American scientist's contribution in new discoveries enhance the reputation for the fact that the U.S.A houses the most powerful biometric research facility in the world. There are issues regarding human genetic modifications and they bring up major questions like what extent is permitted by law, the risk involved, and availability of research benefits to people from all walks of life, use of animal model with the aim of human application. Gene transfer at an embryonic stage through a technique called pronuclear micro injections is being tested in animals but based on the experiments it suggests that embryo gene transfer is unsafe and its use results in random integration of the donor DNA, a lack of control of the number of gene copies inserted,rearrangement of host genetic material and the process was necessarily followed by nuclear transfer of enucleated oocytes led to low birth rate and a very high rate of late pregnancy loss or newborn death thus making gene transfer at the embryonic stage for enhancement would reach far beyond the means of acceptable medical intervention (Stock, 2003). But scientists have crossed that line, they have been able to change the DNA in a human egg and might easily ignore the goal which is prevent rare but horrible disorders in babies, caused by defects in the DNA that only passed down from a mother to a kid. Human genetic enhancement is a controversial topic and to make sense of this requires ethical reflection between Therapy and Enhancement. Both proponents and critics of bioenhancemet have argued that the line between therapy and enhancement is very thin. Therapy includes medical interventions that restore human functioning to species typical norms. One example of human genetic